Chemistry GCE A Level (Junior College 1-2) Syllabus:


1. ATOMS, MOLECULES AND STOICHIOMETRY

Content

Learning Outcomes


[the term relative formula mass or Mr will be used for ionic compounds] Candidates should be able to:


2. ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Content

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:


3. CHEMICAL BONDING

Content

(i)  The shapes of simple molecules

(ii)  Bond energies, bond lengths and bond polarities

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:

[the concept of the ‘unit cell’ is not required]


4. THE GASEOUS STATE

Content

Learning Outcomes


Candidates should be able to:


5. CHEMICAL ENERGETICS

Content

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:

[quantitative treatment is not required]


6. ELECTROCHEMISTRY

Content

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:

[technical details are not required]


7. EQUILIBRIA

Content

Learning Outcomes 


Candidates should be able to:


8. REACTION KINETICS

Content

Learning Outcomes 


Candidates should be able to:

[integrated forms of rate equations are not required]

(ii) use the half-life of a first-order reaction in calculations

(ii) interpret this catalytic effect on a rate constant in terms of the Boltzmann distribution


9. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Preamble


It is intended that the study should:

be concerned primarily with aspects of selected ranges of elements and their compounds

be based on a study of the patterns:


9.1 THE PERIODIC TABLE: CHEMICAL PERIODICITY

Content

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should, for the third Period (sodium to argon), be able to:

In addition, candidates should be able to:


9.2 GROUP II

Content

Similarities and trends in the properties of the Group II metals magnesium to barium and their compounds

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:


9.3 GROUP VII

Content

The similarities and trends in the physical and chemical properties of chlorine, bromine and iodine

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:

(ii) interpret these relative stabilities in terms of bond energies


9.4 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY OF TRANSITION ELEMENTS

Content

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:

(ii) describe the formation, and state the colour of, these complexes


10. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Preamble

Although there are features of organic chemistry topics that are distinctive, it is intended that appropriate cross-references with other sections/topics in the syllabus should be made.

In their study of organic chemistry, candidates may wish to group the organic reactions in terms of the mechanisms in the syllabus where possible. Candidates may wish to compare and contrast the different mechanisms.

When describing preparative reactions, candidates will be expected to quote the reagents, e.g. aqueous NaOH, the essential practical conditions, e.g. reflux, and the identity of each of the major products. Detailed knowledge of practical procedures is not required: however, candidates may be expected to suggest (from their knowledge of the reagents, essential conditions and products) what steps may be needed to purify/extract a required product from the reaction mixture. In equations for organic redox reactions, the symbols [O] and [H] are acceptable.


10.1 INTRODUCTORY TOPICS

In each of the sections below, 10.1 to 10.7, candidates will be expected to be able to predict the reaction products of a given compound in reactions that are chemically similar to those specified.

Content

Structural formulae 


In candidates’ answers, an acceptable response to a request for a structural formula will be to give the minimal detail, using conventional groups, for an unambiguous structure, e.g. CH3CH2CH2OH for propan-1- ol, not C3H7OH. 


Displayed formulae

A displayed formula should show both the relative placing of atoms and the number of bonds between them, e.g.


Skeletal formulae

A skeletal formula is a simplified representation of an organic formula. It is derived from the structural formula by removing hydrogen atoms (and their associated bonds) and carbon atoms from alkyl chains, leaving just the carbon-carbon bonds in the carbon skeleton and the associated functional groups.

Skeletal or partial-skeletal representations may be used in question papers and are acceptable in candidates’ answers where they are unambiguous.

The skeletal formula for butan-2-ol and a partial-skeletal formula for cholesterol are shown below.


Optical Isomers

When drawing a pair of optical isomers, candidates should indicate the three-dimensional structures according to the convention used in the example below.

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:


10.2 HYDROCARBONS

Content

Alkanes (exemplified by ethane)

(i) Free-radical reactions

Alkenes (exemplified by ethene)


(i) Addition and oxidation reactions

Arenes (exemplified by benzene and methylbenzene)

Hydrocarbons as fuels

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:

(ii) describe the effect of the delocalisation of electrons in arenes in such reactions


10.3 HALOGEN DERIVATIVES

Content

Halogenoalkanes and halogenoarenes

  1. Nucleophilic substitution


  2. Elimination

Relative strength of the C-Hal bond

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:


10.4 HYDROXY COMPOUNDS

Content

Learning Outcomes 


Candidates should be able to:

(ii) suggest characteristic distinguishing reactions, e.g. mild oxidation


10.5 CARBONYL COMPOUNDS

Content

Aldehydes (exemplified by ethanal)

Ketones (exemplified by propanone and phenylethanone)

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:


10.6 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND DERIVATIVES

Content

(i) Formation from primary alcohols and nitriles


(ii) Salt, ester and acyl chloride formation

  1. Ease of hydrolysis compared with alkyl and aryl chlorides

  2. Reaction with alcohols, phenols and primary amines

(i) Formation from carboxylic acids and from acyl chlorides

(ii) Hydrolysis (under acidic and under basic conditions)

Learning Outcomes 


Candidates should be able to:


10.7 NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

Content

Amines (exemplified by ethylamine and phenylamine)

Learning Outcomes 


Candidates should be able to: